Most of the artificial food colourings (afcs) available for use in food appear either as dyes or lake pigments.
Dyes are dissolved in water, but are not soluble in oil. Dyes are produced as powder, granules, liquid or other special purpose forms, they can be used in beverages and baked goals, dyes can cause colour stool of large amount is ingested.
Lakes are ideal for coloring products containing fats and oil or items lacking sufficient moisture to dissolve dyes. They are typically used in coated tablets, cakes, candies and chewing gums.
METABOLIC PATHWAY OF SOME AFCS (AZO DYES AND SUDAN DYES)
Human exposure to AFCS occurs mainly through ingestion. The human gastrointestinal tract harbour a complex and microflora composed of at least general thousand species (Eckburg et al:2005). This microflora plays roles in the degradation of AZO dyes, with AZO reduction being the most important reaction related to toxicity and mutagenecity (Stolz:2001). There has been concern about contamination of hot chili, other species and baked foods with 1-amino-2-naphthol-based azo dyes. There is evidence that sudan dyes have genotoxic effects and that ingestion of food products contaminated with sudan I, II, III, IV and para red could leadnto exposure in the human gastrointestinal tracts.
Metabolism of most AFCS can lead to carcinogenic metabolites that could cause putative effects to produce overactive, impulsive and inattentive behaviour, i.e. hyperactivity which is a pattern of behaviour that shows substantial individual differences in the general populations (Mccann et al:2007).
Metabolism of most AFCS can lead to carcinogenic metabolites, this metabolites of AZO and sudan dyes are identified to be aniline, 2,4-dimethylaniline, 0-toluidine, and 4-mitraniline through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tendem mass spectrometry analysis.